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python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

靠谱杨 2022-9-24 83 9/24

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

按学科分类【中图分类】

共计三十余万条科技报告数据

爬取的网址:https://www.nstrs.cn/kjbg/navigation

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

!!!

如果要完整地跑起来代码,需要先看一下我的这篇博客,完成IP代理池的相关配置:

https://www.cnblogs.com/rainbow-1/p/16725503.html

!!!


分析网站数据来源可以发现,是使用的post方式的请求,且参数列表如下:

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

那么我们需要做的就是模拟这个请求,同时需要带上我们自定义的参数,这里面需要的其实一个就是页码pageNo,另一个是分类,如下图:

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

parms = {
            "pageNo": i,
            "competentOrg": "",
            "jihuaId": "",
            "fieldCode": "",
            "classification": name,   # 修改
            "kjbgRegion": "",
            "kjbgType": "",
            "grade": ""
        }

简单说一下我都做了什么,首先是配置是IP代理池,存在redis数据库,每次【设置了随机延迟时间】随机取出一个进行访问。

其次使用了随机UserAgent请求头。

爬虫是直接使用post请求,携带参数抓获返回的json数据做解析并存入mysql数据库。


下面是代码:

爬虫方法report_crawler

也就是你需要直接运行的方法。

我这部分是从"社会科学总论"这个分类开始爬的,前面那些如果需要爬,就直接改pageList页码列表、nameList名称列表、tableList数据库表列表就可以【切记是一 一对应的!】

import json
import random
from time import sleep

import requests
from fake_useragent import UserAgent

from report_data.into_mysql import insert_mysql
from report_data.ip_redis import my_redis

"""
post方法参数
params:字典或字节序列,作为参数增加到链接中
data:字典,字节序列或文件对象,作为请求的内容
json:JSON格式的数据,作为Request的内容
headers:字典,HTTP定制头(模拟浏览器进行访问)
cookies:字典或CpplieJar,Request中的cookie
auth:元祖,支持HTTP认证功能
files:字典类型,传输文件
timeout:设定超时时间,秒为单位
proxies:字典类型,设定访问代理服务器,可以增加登陆认证
allow_redirects:True//False,默认为True,重定向开关
stream:True/False,默认为True,获取内容立即下载开关
verify:True/False,默认为True,认证SSL证书开关
cert:本地SSL证书路径
"""
# 页码pageList
# 分类名称参数列表 nameList
#
def get_report(page,name,tableName):
    # ------------------------------ 修改页码
    for i in range(1,page):
        print("---------------------------------")
        ua = UserAgent()
        print("【随机 UserAgent:】" + ua.random)  # 随机产生headers
        temp_headers = ua.random
        # --------------------------------------
        test_redis = my_redis()
        temp_proxy = test_redis.get_ip()
        print("【随机 IP:】" + temp_proxy)
        url="https://www.nstrs.cn/rest/kjbg/wfKjbg/list"
        # url2 = "https://www.nstrs.cn/rest/kjbg/wfKjbg/list?pageNo=2&competentOrg=&jihuaId=&fieldCode=&classification=医药、卫生&kjbgRegion=&kjbgType=&grade="
        parms = {
            "pageNo": i,
            "competentOrg": "",
            "jihuaId": "",
            "fieldCode": "",
            "classification": name,   # 修改
            "kjbgRegion": "",
            "kjbgType": "",
            "grade": ""
        }

        other_parms={
                'User-Agent': temp_headers,
                'https': 'http://'+temp_proxy,
                'http': 'http://'+temp_proxy
            }
        sleeptime = random.uniform(0, 0.7)
        sleep(sleeptime)
        # print(url)
        response = requests.post(url, parms, other_parms)
        response.encoding='utf8'
        print(response.text+'\n')
        response_data = response.text   # 返回数据
        json_data = json.loads(response_data)   # 封装字典
        res_list_data = json_data['RESULT']['list']   # 一页 长度为10的list [{ },{ },{ } ... { }] len=10

        """
        重新构建一个 list [{ }]
        """
        for item in res_list_data:
            insert_mysql(item,name,tableName)
    return

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # 页码 pageList []
    pageList = [788,779,656,584,573,510,440,361,
                315,226,224,220,155,112,112,
                87,53,50,39,33,18,12,5,4,2,2,2,2]

    nameList = [
        "社会科学总论",
        "环境科学、安全科学",
        "建筑科学",
        "轻工业、手工业",
        "数理科学与化学",
        "能源与动力工程",
        "电工技术",
        "矿业工程",
        "经济",
        "文化、科学、教育、体育",
        "水利工程",
        "交通运输",
        "自然科学总论",
        "石油、天然气工业",
        "冶金工业",
        "武器工业",
        "航空、航天",
        "哲学、宗教",
        "原子能技术",
        "历史、地理",
        "政治、法律",
        "艺术",
        "语言、文字",
        "军事",
        "综合性图书",
        "文学",
        "语言、文学",
        "mks主义、ln主义、mzd思想、dxp理论"
    ]

    tableList = ["tech_c","tech_x","tech_tu","tech_ts","tech_o","tech_tk","tech_tm",
                 "tech_td","tech_f","tech_g","tech_tv","tech_u",
                 "tech_n","tech_te","tech_tf","tech_tj","tech_v","tech_b","tech_tl",
                 "tech_k","tech_d","tech_j","tech_h","tech_e","tech_z","tech_i","tech_i","tech_a"]
    for i in range(0,len(tableList)):
        get_report(pageList[i],nameList[i],tableList[i])

目录方法category

返回一个中图分类号对应的名称

# 用以返回中图分类号
def get_code(key):
    code_dict = {
        "医药、卫生":"R",
        "一般工业技术":"TB",
        "生物科学":"Q",
        "数理科学和化学":"O",
        "农业科学":"S",
        "工业技术":"T",
        "自动化技术、计算机技术":"TP",
        "天文学、地球科学":"P",
        "无线电电子学、电信技术":"TN",
        "金属学与金属工艺":"TG",
        "机械、仪表工业":"TH",
        "化学工业":"TQ",
        "社会科学总论":"C",
        "环境科学、安全科学":"X",
        "建筑科学":"TU",
        "轻工业、手工业":"TS",
        "数理科学与化学":"O",
        "能源与动力工程":"TK",
        "电工技术":"TM",
        "矿业工程":"TD",
        "经济":"F",
        "文化、科学、教育、体育":"G",
        "水利工程":"TV",
        "交通运输":"U",
        "自然科学总论":"N",
        "石油、天然气工业":"TE",
        "冶金工业":"TF",
        "武器工业":"TJ",
        "航空、航天":"V",
        "哲学、宗教":"B",
        "原子能技术":"TL",
        "历史、地理":"K",
        "政治、法律":"D",
        "艺术":"J",
        "语言、文字":"H",
        "军事":"E",
        "综合性图书":"Z",
        "文学":"I",
        "语言、文学":"I",
        "mks主义、ln主义、mzd思想、dxp理论":"A",
    }
    res = code_dict.get(key)
    return res
if __name__ == '__main__':
    data = get_code("工业技术")
    print(data)

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

user_agent方法

返回随机headers

from fake_useragent import UserAgent   # 下载:pip install fake-useragent
import requests

ua = UserAgent()        # 实例化,需要联网但是网站不太稳定-可能耗时会长一些
print(ua.random)  # 随机产生
headers = {
    'User-Agent': ua.random    # 伪装
    }

# 请求
if __name__ == '__main__':
    url = 'https://www.baidu.com/'
    response = requests.get(url, headers=headers ,proxies={"http":"117.136.27.43"})
    print(response.status_code)

ip_redis方法

从redis数据库取出一个ip并返回(前3000个随机一个,降序排列)

import random

import redis

class my_redis:

    def get_ip(self):
        r = redis.Redis(host='127.0.0.1', port=6379, db=0,decode_responses=True)
        my_redis_data = r.zrange("proxies:universal",1,3000,True)
        return random.choice(my_redis_data)
        # print(len(my_redis_data))

if __name__ == '__main__':
    test_redis=my_redis()
    data=test_redis.get_ip()
    print(data)

into_mysql方法

存入mysql数据库的方法

#连接数据库  获取游标
import pymysql
from report_data.category import get_code

def get_conn():
    """
    :return: 连接,游标
    """
    # 创建连接
    conn = pymysql.connect(host="127.0.0.1",
                    user="root",
                    password="reliable",
                    db="tech",
                    charset="utf8mb4")
    # 创建游标
    cursor = conn.cursor()  # 执行完毕返回的结果集默认以元组显示
    if ((conn != None) & (cursor != None)):
        print("数据库连接成功 ...")
    else:
        print("数据库连接失败!")
    return conn, cursor
#关闭数据库连接和游标
def close_conn(conn, cursor):
    if cursor:
        cursor.close()
    if conn:
        conn.close()
    return 1
# 数据表名
# 中图分类名
def insert_mysql(data,name,tableName):
    print(data['title'])

    id=data['id']
    title=data['title']
    alternativeTitle=data['alternativeTitle']
    creator=data['creator']
    abstractEn=data['abstractEn']
    keywordsEn=data['keywordsEn']
    abstractCn=data['abstractCn']
    keywordsCn=data['keywordsCn']
    creatOrorganization=data['creatOrorganization']
    prepareOrganization=data['prepareOrganization']
    publicDate=data['publicDate']
    createTime=data['createTime']
    projectName=data['projectName']
    competentOrg=data['competentOrg']
    projectSubjectName=data['projectSubjectName']
    projectSubjectId=data['projectSubjectId']
    #------------------------------
    classification=name   # 修改
    #------------------------------
    classificationCode=get_code(classification)   # 需要调用get_code(name)获取
    responsiblePerson = data['responsiblePerson']
    supportChannel = data['supportChannel']
    undertakeOrg = data['undertakeOrg']
    kjbgSource = data['kjbgSource']
    proposalDate = data['proposalDate']
    submittedDate = data['submittedDate']
    kjbgRegion = data['kjbgRegion']
    collectionDate = data['collectionDate']
    collectionNumber = data['collectionNumber']
    fieldCode = data['fieldCode']
    fieldId = data['fieldId']
    kjbgQWAddress = data['kjbgQWAddress']
    isNewRecord = data['isNewRecord']
    sourceUrl = "https://www.nstrs.cn/kjbg/detail?id="+id          # 需要自己拼 https://www.nstrs.cn/kjbg/detail?id=

    conn, cursor = get_conn()
    # ------------------------------ 修改表名
    sql = "insert into `"+tableName+"` (id,title,alternativeTitle,creator,abstractEn," \
          "keywordsEn,abstractCn,keywordsCn,creatOrorganization,prepareOrganization," \
          "publicDate,createTime,projectName,competentOrg,projectSubjectName," \
          "projectSubjectId,classification,classificationCode,responsiblePerson,supportChannel," \
          "undertakeOrg,kjbgSource,proposalDate,submittedDate,kjbgRegion," \
          "collectionDate,collectionNumber,fieldCode,fieldId,kjbgQWAddress," \
          "isNewRecord,sourceUrl) values(%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s" \
          ",%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)"
    try:
        try:
            cursor.execute(sql, [id,title,alternativeTitle,creator,abstractEn,
                      keywordsEn,abstractCn,keywordsCn,creatOrorganization,prepareOrganization,
                      publicDate,createTime,projectName,competentOrg,projectSubjectName,
                      projectSubjectId,classification,classificationCode,responsiblePerson,supportChannel,
                      undertakeOrg,kjbgSource,proposalDate,submittedDate,kjbgRegion,
                      collectionDate,collectionNumber,fieldCode,fieldId,kjbgQWAddress,isNewRecord,sourceUrl])
        except pymysql.err.IntegrityError:
            print("主键冲突!")
        conn.commit()  # 提交事务 update delete insert操作
    except pymysql.err.IntegrityError:
        print("error!")
    finally:
        close_conn(conn, cursor)
    return 1

if __name__ == '__main__':
    print()

最终爬取三十多万条科技报告,按中图分类建立了mysql数据表,分表存储不同分类的数据。

【其中的数理科学和化学,数理科学与化学这两个分类做了合并,合并为数理科学和化学类,属O】

【语言、文学和文学做了合并,同属 I 文学类】

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

附几张结果图:

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

最后说一下数据表结构:

/*
Navicat MySQL Data Transfer

Source Server         : reliable
Source Server Version : 80013
Source Host           : localhost:3306
Source Database       : tech

Target Server Type    : MYSQL
Target Server Version : 80013
File Encoding         : 65001

Date: 2022-09-24 13:54:05
*/

SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS=0;

-- ----------------------------
-- Table structure for tech_o
-- ----------------------------
DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `tech_o`;
CREATE TABLE `tech_o` (
  `id` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci NOT NULL COMMENT 'ID',
  `title` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '中文标题',
  `alternativeTitle` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '英文标题',
  `creator` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '作者',
  `abstractEn` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '英文摘要',
  `keywordsEn` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '英文关键字',
  `abstractCn` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '中文摘要',
  `keywordsCn` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '中文关键字',
  `creatOrorganization` text CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci COMMENT '创建者组织',
  `prepareOrganization` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '预备组织',
  `publicDate` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '公布时间',
  `createTime` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '编制时间',
  `projectName` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '项目名称',
  `competentOrg` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '项目地址',
  `projectSubjectName` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '项目主题名称',
  `projectSubjectId` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '项目主题ID',
  `classification` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '中图分类名称',
  `classificationCode` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '中图分类号',
  `responsiblePerson` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '负责人',
  `supportChannel` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '主办方',
  `undertakeOrg` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '承办方',
  `kjbgSource` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '科技报告来源单位',
  `proposalDate` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '提议时间',
  `submittedDate` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '提交时间',
  `kjbgRegion` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '科技报告所属行政区划',
  `collectionDate` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '收集时间',
  `collectionNumber` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '收集编号',
  `fieldCode` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '领域代码',
  `fieldId` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '领域ID',
  `kjbgQWAddress` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '报告链接',
  `isNewRecord` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '是否新记录',
  `sourceUrl` varchar(255) CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_general_ci DEFAULT NULL COMMENT '国家科技报告服务系统收录链接',
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

如果需要获取这部分数据,可关注我的微信公众号【小杨的挨踢IT生活】,回复 “科技报告” 获取下载链接。

python爬虫爬取国家科技报告服务系统数据,共计30余万条

- THE END -

靠谱杨

11月09日11:18

最后修改:2022年11月9日
0

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